Bladder cancer (BC) is the 5th most commonly diagnosed cancer in Canada. It is usually manifested as 'superficial' BC. However, 25% of patients progress to a more aggressive and potentially lethal state. Recent studies of BC have revealed several distinct subtypes emphasising the need for an individualized approach. Our group has successfully established a bladder cell removal (decellularization) protocol. These acellular bladders have been seeded with normal bladder cells and grown for up to 1 month showing adequate cell survival. These preliminary results proved to us the feasibility and great potential of engineering bladder tissues. Here we propose to develop a 3D BC model, on demand, using acellular bladder scaffolds as a platform, which will enable us to recreate a BC of a specific patient to test and/or develop drugs. The development of this model will potentially make a step forward on how we currently test anti-cancer drugs. Each 3D BC tissue constructed, will be identical to a specific patient undergoing bladder cancer. This approach will have the potential to simultaneously test multiple anti-cancer drugs before giving the appropriate one to the patient, avoiding sequential unnecessary treatments and reducing side effects which will ultimately improve patient's quality of life. Our model system is a novel approach that will aid in: the mechanistic studies of cell-cell interaction; provide a platform to test and develop new drugs; reduce the number of animals used for experimentation; and, provide a model for preclinical treatment evaluation before deciding on a personalized therapy. At the conclusion of this project we hope to have developed a new tool that will significantly impact the way we currently treat bladder cancer patients.