Please enable JavaScript or talk to your local administrator to get JavaScript enabled.

Project

Further Development of Multi-Antigen Vaccines for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Bladder Cancer

Funder: National Cancer Institute

Funding period
USD 232 K
Funding amount
Abstract
Bladder cancer ranks as the ninth most frequently-diagnosed cancer worldwide, with the highest incidence rates observed in men in Southern and Western Europe, North America, as well as in certain countries in Northern Africa or Western Asia. Incidence rates are consistently lower in women than men, although sex differences varied greatly between countries [1]. Even though 70 to 80% of patients are diagnosed with superficial disease, bladder cancer has a high overall rate of recurrence at approximately 65% [2]. Since the pioneering work of Morales et al. in 1976 [3], intravesical BCG has been the standard-of-care immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer since 1990. BCG immunotherapy results in 70?75% and 50?60% complete response rates for carcinoma-in-situ and small residual tumors, respectively [2]. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of patients will fail initial BCG therapy and approximately 30?50% of BCG responders will develop recurrent tumors within 5 years [4, 5]. Therefore, despite the effectiveness of BCG, additional therapies are needed to limit recurrence and improve survival for both BCG responders and non-responders. Evaluation of the genomic data of bladder cancer has shown that about half of patients as having highly mutated tumors [6]. While other tumors have a lower mutational burden, these can be characterized by dozens of gene amplifications. Both mutated proteins and overexpressed proteins can be exploited as tumor antigens and potential vaccine candidates. Currently, the most common tumor antigens exploited in cancer immunotherapy are up-regulated self-proteins, such as HER2. While mutated epitopes are recognized as foreign ?neo-antigens? by the immune system eliciting Type I response, epitopes derived from non-mutated self-antigens are more likely to trigger Th2 polarizing cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-6 that inhibit CTL proliferation and function. Recently attempts have been made to identify Th1 selective epitopes from non-mutated self-antigens that could elicit a ?neo-antigen? like response. The Th1 selective epitopes, when used in a vaccine, can elicit unopposed Type I immunity and are effective in preventing cancer growth in pre-clinical models [7]. If Th2 inducing epitopes from the same protein are included in a vaccine, Th2 cells elicited by immunization will abrogate the anti-tumor effect of Th1[8, 9]. Therefore, the vaccines composed only of Th1 inducing epitopes may allow unrestricted expansion of both Th1 and CTL. Th1 selective non-mutated antigen vaccines may be effective in preventing disease recurrence and progression. If the antigens are expressed early in oncogenesis, vaccines could have utility in prevention. Novel and more promising target antigens for preventive cancer vaccines may be identified from careful analyses of molecular alterations such as overexpressed genes in premalignant and/or malignant tissues discovered through the TCGA and other cancer genomics projects. Some of the genes overexpressed in premalignant and malignant lesions, but not in normal tissues, could be immunogenic and capable of eliciting protective antitumor immune responses. High priority candidate genes can be selected from the list of overexpressed genes by employing a systematic approach, for example, based on differential expression patterns between premalignant or malignant lesions vs. normal tissues, functional roles in physiologic or oncogenic signaling pathways, and immunogenicity prediction and in vitro screening processes. Once candidate target proteins are selected, peptide based vaccines may be designed following the scoring methods developed by Disis et al. [10] and can be preclinically tested for in vivo immunogenicity and tumor preventive efficacy in relevant models. These kind of rational design strategies may help expedite the discovery and development of an efficacious cancer vaccine for prevention of various cancers including cancer of the bladder. This is a companion Task Order to the work on the bladder cancer vaccine development undertaken under the previously issued Task Order (TO) HHSN26100006 under the IDIQ contract HHSN2612015000361 (hereafter referred to as TO#6). The TO#6 was the result of an application to the NCI PREVENT Program submitted by Dr. Mary L. Disis at the University of Washington. The current SOW defines the additional technical task for the ongoing work, followed by the technical tasks for the next phase of the vaccine development effort for the prevention of bladder cancer in the 4-hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN)-induced bladder cancer model. All necessary materials and biospecimens can be transferred to the contractor upon award.
Similar projects All >
Sorted by: Start Date
Project list item
Intravesical delivery of an Fc-enhanced CD40 agonist antibody for the treatment of bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network to Jeffrey Ravetch, David Knorr

USD 300,000
2020 - 2022
Project list item
Epigenetic regulators of subtype plasticity in bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network to John Robert Christin

USD 1,700
2020 - 2020
Project list item
Characterization of Nectin-4 expression in molecular subtypes of urothelial cancer and mechanisms of resistance to enfortumab vedotin

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network to Carissa Ellen Chu

USD 1,700
2020 - 2020
Project list item
Recombinant CCL2 as a novel treatment strategy for bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network to Neelam Mukherjee, Robert Scott Svatek

USD 50,000
2020 - 2021
Project list item
Defining NRF2 induced tumor invasion in bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network to Yuki Kita, William Youngkwan Kim, Bernard Weissman

USD 50,000
2020 - 2021

System

Categories
  • FOR (ANZSRC)

    1107 Immunology

  • FOR (ANZSRC)

    1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis

  • RCDC

    Biotechnology

  • RCDC

    Cancer

  • RCDC

    Clinical Research

  • RCDC

    Genetics

  • RCDC

    Immunization

  • RCDC

    Prevention

  • RCDC

    Urologic Diseases

  • RCDC

    Vaccine Related

  • HRCS HC

    Cancer

  • Health Research Areas

    Biomedical

  • Broad Research Areas

    Basic Science